Sponsored Spot #1

Where is this ?

N 54.56’06.005″ W 002.47’31.575′ was spot in a field I visted in 2015.

This is an image created as part of an art as research project I did to explore how we perceive online and offline spaces.

My old Sony phone gave me a fix through GPS to give me my longitude and latitude. Myself and the phone were in a field near Carlisle. The physical space and myself would have no idea of the long/lat coordinates. But my phone did know this information, not in any conscious way, but it had information about the locations of 12 GPS satellites and had fix from 7 of them. Each sent a signal the equivalent of a light bulb, picked up by a tiny sensor in my phone. The satellites, and thus the American Government who own them would not know where I was. But, in 2015, Google and Vodafone, my network provider would.

The image was posted on Instagram in 2020 as a spoof of online content that is required to be identified by the companies that were responsible for the image. In effect, it is sponsored by Sony, Navstar GPS and WGS84 the creators of the long/lat coordinates. This is another layer of place and space. Then it went on my website as a work of art, Then it will be seen by you on your device. All promulgated by binary code, on a server somewhere, transmitted by data send down cables over land and sea and by microwave though through the air moved via dishes on mast and buildings.

The object you see this on is an example of what Rob Kitchin and Martin Dodge call code/space. In their book ‘CODE/SPACE : Software and Everyday Life’ they discuss the integration of online and offline concepts of space and place, suggesting that some places like airport terminals, offices and supermarket checkouts only function as offline spaces if they are connected to code in online spaces, to cyberspace.

As art as research, I have moved on from my original idea, which was really just to capture an image of where offline and online world meet. At first just out of my own curiosity. This led on to other ideas involving QR codes and barcodes embedded in outdoor places and photographed, which I will post on here, but again, I originally did as an experiment to see what would happen if I digitised analogue spaces. As I decided to put this online, I was interested in where Instagram or my website is, 5 years after `I took the photo in a field by the River Irthing near Brampton, my home. Art as research makes knowledge, the same as other forms of research. But in art as research what is found emerges from the process of looking so cannot be hypothesised and tested as in quantitative research. This makes it by quantitative standards, anecdotal, subjective, emergent and situational. But I think this makes art useful for personal research. I will return to this in other posts. As ever, this is work in progress. This is like a flash on a trail, that tells me where I have been, but not where I am going. The path emerges from the walking.

If you are interested in having a go at saying where this is, contact me or leave a comment or reply below. If you are interested in using art the research outdoor experiences, please get in touch.

Thanks

Chris Reed

‘Zoom fatigue’ is taxing the brain. Here’s why that happens.

An interesting article from National Geographical about Zoom and what it does to your head.


ScienceCoronavirus Coverage

Video calls seemed an elegant solution to remote work, but they wear on the psyche in complicated ways.

The unprecedented explosion of video calling in response to the pandemic has launched an unofficial social experiment.

By Julia Sklar

PUBLISHED April 24, 2020

Jodi Eichler-Levine finished teaching a class over Zoom on April 15, and she immediately fell asleep in the guest bedroom doubling as her office. The religion studies professor at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania says that while teaching is always exhausting, she has never “conked out” like that before.

Until recently, Eichler-Levine was leading live classes full of people whose emotions she could easily gauge, even as they navigated difficult topics—such as slavery and the Holocaust—that demand a high level of conversational nuance and empathy. Now, like countless people around the world, the COVID-19 pandemic has thrust her life into a virtual space. In addition to teaching remotely, she’s been attending a weekly department happy hour, an arts-and-crafts night with friends, and a Passover seder—all over the videoconferencing app Zoom. The experience is taking a toll.

“It’s almost like you’re emoting more because you’re just a little box on a screen,” Eichler-Levine says. “I’m just so tired.”

So many people are reporting similar experiences that it’s earned its own slang term, Zoom fatigue, though this exhaustion also applies if you’re using Google Hangouts, Skype, FaceTime, or any other video-calling interface. The unprecedented explosion of their use in response to the pandemic has launched an unofficial social experiment, showing at a population scale what’s always been true: virtual interactions can be extremely hard on the brain.

“There’s a lot of research that shows we actually really struggle with this,” says Andrew Franklin, an assistant professor of cyberpsychology at Virginia’s Norfolk State University. He thinks people may be surprised at how difficult they’re finding video calls given that the medium seems neatly confined to a small screen and presents few obvious distractions.

Zoom gloom

Humans communicate even when they’re quiet. During an in-person conversation, the brain focuses partly on the words being spoken, but it also derives additional meaning from dozens of non-verbal cues, such as whether someone is facing you or slightly turned away, if they’re fidgeting while you talk, or if they inhale quickly in preparation to interrupt.

These cues help paint a holistic picture of what is being conveyed and what’s expected in response from the listener. Since humans evolved as social animals, perceiving these cues comes naturally to most of us, takes little conscious effort to parse, and can lay the groundwork for emotional intimacy.

However, a typical video call impairs these ingrained abilities, and requires sustained and intense attention to words instead. If a person is framed only from the shoulders up, the possibility of viewing hand gestures or other body language is eliminated. If the video quality is poor, any hope of gleaning something from minute facial expressions is dashed.

“For somebody who’s really dependent on those non-verbal cues, it can be a big drain not to have them,” Franklin says. Prolonged eye contact has become the strongest facial cue readily available, and it can feel threatening or overly intimate if held too long.

Multi-person screens magnify this exhausting problem. Gallery view—where all meeting participants appear Brady Bunch-style—challenges the brain’s central vision, forcing it to decode so many people at once that no one comes through meaningfully, not even the speaker.

“We’re engaged in numerous activities, but never fully devoting ourselves to focus on anything in particular,” says Franklin. Psychologists call this continuous partial attention, and it applies as much to virtual environments as it does to real ones. Think of how hard it would be to cook and read at the same time. That’s the kind of multi-tasking your brain is trying, and often failing, to navigate in a group video chat. Today’sPopular StoriesMagazineWhere have all the insects gone?TravelU.S. national parks could be privatized. Here’s what would change.ScienceThe pandemic may fuel the next wave of the opioid crisis

This leads to problems in which group video chats become less collaborative and more like siloed panels, in which only two people at a time talk while the rest listen. Because each participant is using one audio stream and is aware of all the other voices, parallel conversations are impossible. If you view a single speaker at a time, you can’t recognize how non-active participants are behaving—something you would normally pick up with peripheral vision.

For some people, the prolonged split in attention creates a perplexing sense of being drained while having accomplished nothing. The brain becomes overwhelmed by unfamiliar excess stimuli while being hyper-focused on searching for non-verbal cues that it can’t find.

That’s why a traditional phone call may be less taxing on the brain, Franklin says, because it delivers on a small promise: to convey only a voice.

Zoom boon

By contrast, the sudden shift to video calls has been a boon for people who have neurological difficulty with in-person exchanges, such as those with autism who can become overwhelmed by multiple people talking.

John Upton, an editor at the New Jersey-based news outlet Climate Central, recently found out he is autistic. Late last year, he was struggling with the mental load of attending packed conferences, engaging during in-person meetings, and navigating the small-talk that’s common in work places. He says these experiences caused “an ambiguous tension, a form of anxiety.”

If you’re feeling self-conscious or overstimulated, turn off your camera and save your energy for when you absolutely want to perceive the few non-verbal cues that do come through.

As a result, he suffered a bout of autistic burnout and struggled to process complicated information—which he says is normally his strength—leading to feelings of helplessness and futility. To combat the issue, he began transitioning to working mostly from home and stacking all in-person meetings on Thursdays, to get them out of the way.

Now that the pandemic has pushed his coworkers to be remote as well, he has observed their video calls lead to fewer people talking and less filler conversation at the beginning and end of each meeting. Upton says his sense of tension and anxiety has been reduced to the point of being negligible.

This outcome is supported by research, says the University of Québec Outaouais’s Claude Normand, who studies how people with developmental and intellectual disabilities socialize online. People with autism tend to have difficulty understanding when it’s their turn to speak in live conversations, she notes. That’s why the frequent lag between speakers on video calls may actually help some autistic people. “When you’re Zooming online, it’s clear whose turn it is to talk,” Normand says.

However, other people on the autism spectrum may still struggle with video chatting, as it can exacerbate sensory triggers such as loud noise and bright lights, she adds.

On the whole, video chatting has allowed human connections to flourish in ways that would have been impossible just a few years ago. These tools enable us to maintain long-distance relationships, connect workrooms remotely, and even now, in spite of the mental exhaustion they can generate, foster some sense of togetherness during a pandemic.

It’s even possible Zoom fatigue will abate once people learn to navigate the mental tangle video chatting can cause. If you’re feeling self-conscious or overstimulated, Normand recommends you turn off your camera. Save your energy for when you absolutely want to perceive the few non-verbal cues that do come through, such as during the taxing chats with people you don’t know very well, or for when you want the warm fuzzies you get from seeing someone you love. Or if it’s a work meeting that can be done by phone, try walking at the same time.

“Walking meetings are known to improve creativity, and probably reduce stress as well,” Normand says.


Hidden data is revealing the true scale of the coronavirus outbreak

A good article from Wired.

Satellite images, internet speed and traffic information tell a whole new story about Covid-19. Exploring the idea of cyberspace as a digital place which is an adjunct to physical, analogue space. This article that shows how understanding digital space changes our perceptions of analogue space.


Something was wrong with Malaysia’s internet. It was March 13, and the more Simon Angus looked at the data, the more he suspected that the country might be in the midst of a coronavirus crisis

Angus is an academic at Monash University and the cofounder of Kaspr Datahaus, a Melbourne-based company that analyses the quality of global internet connection to glean economic and social insights. The company monitors millions of internet-connected devices to gauge internet speed across the world. For them, a sudden deterioration in a country’s internet speed means that something is putting the network under strain. In recent weeks Kaspr’s theory is that the “something” is linked to the Covid-19 epidemics – as people who are working from home, or quarantining, or staying home as a precaution start using the internet more intensely than usual.

“For people who are in lockdown, or in panic mode, or in self-isolation, the internet has become a fundamentally important part of their information source, and of their consumption of entertainment,” Angus says.

To put it bluntly, when millions more turn on Netflix, scroll through TikTok, start a Zoom call, play Fortnite, or simply scroll idly through Twitter, that has repercussions on the quality of the country’s internet. (That is why EU commissioner Thierry Breton asked Netflix to restrict high-definition streaming until the emergency is over.)

Now, Angus’s scanning had detected that Malaysia’s internet had become over five per cent slower in the March 12 to 13 timespan – worse even than in locked-down Italy. Officially, though, Malaysia had only 129 confirmed coronavirus cases – a relatively low number, although it had been inching up for a week. 

What was happening, though, was that the population was cottoning on to the government’s sloppy handling of the pandemic. In late February, in what would turn out to be a monumental blunder, authorities had allowed a religious mass gathering to go ahead in Kuala Lumpur. Once Covid-19 cases linked to the event started to emerge, the government scrambled to find all the attendees, but got the numbers wrong – first saying that only 5,000 people at the gathering were Malaysia residents, then updating the figure to 10,000 and then 14,500. With the mess laid bare, many Malaysians seemed to have decided to stay at home out of sheer self-preservation.

“A number of people, apparently, were already noticing what was going on and were panicking, and were starting to change their behaviour in response. And this is the signal that we started picking up,” Angus says. “And because Malaysia isn’t known for its fantastic internet, [the network] probably was in a fragile situation already.” Malaysia enforced a lockdown on March 16; according to the World Health Organisation, its case count stands at 553 as of March 18, but recent press reports put that figure at 900.

“Our data was suggesting there was something serious going on with the Covid-19 stress on their internet backbone, and now we know that that’s actually true,” Angus says.

As the coronavirus crisis engulfs the planet, some think that using official data to make sense of the situation only helps so much. Governments might be deliberately obfuscating what is going on in the country – as China did in the early stages of the outbreak; figures on cases and deaths might be fuzzy because of poor collection practices or even regional differences in how the data is gathered, as it is likely the case in Italy; more in general, official figures struggle to capture real-time developments as they happen on the ground.

“Who cares about GDP for Q2?,” says Jens Nordvig, CEO of New York-based data analytics company Exante Data, which has been monitoring the Covid-19 outbreak in China using, among other sources, GPS data from Chinese social network Baidu. “What we really care about is stuff like people’s movements, and how social distancing is working. And there’s incredible data available now, if you know how to use it.”

That is why financial institutions, investors, companies, and insurers are turning to companies like Kaspr or Exante, specialised in analysing alternative data sources offering a fair proxy for how countries are grappling with the emergency. That can apply to social trends, like in Malaysia’s case, but more often it is about the economy. 

For instance, Angus says that monitoring China’s internet throughout the pandemic showed how industrial plants in the worst-affected regions – which operate servers and computers – shut down during the outbreak. In the last few weeks, as the emergency abated, things have started crawling back to normalcy, even if we are still far from pre-Covid-19 levels, and the evidence might be polluted by plants being restarted just to hit government-imposed power consumption targets. “China is not normal yet,” Angus says. The country’s internet latency suggests that “recovery is happening in China, but there are still a lot of people who must be facing at-home-life for their activities”.How Italy became the ground zero of Europe’s coronavirus crisis

Scanning cyberspace is not the only way of getting the pulse of the Covid-19 age. Samir Madani is the founder of TankerTrackers, a company that leverages open source information to provide insights on the global crude oil industry to small traders. As the coronavirus pandemic unfolded, he has turned to an eclectic suite of sources to navigate the mayhem.

Combining data from vessel transponders with satellite images, he has periodically checked how many oil tankers are in anchorage in China, unable to deliver their cargo – an intimation both of how well China’s ports are functioning amid the pandemic, and of how well industrial production is keeping up. 

Madani also relies on TomTom’s road traffic data for various Chinese and Italian cities to understand how they are affected by quarantines and movement restrictions. “What we’ve seen over the past two weeks is a big revival in congestion,” he says. “There’s more traffic going on now in China, in the big cities, apart from Wuhan.” 

He says that road traffic has taken up especially in large industrial and mercantile cities like Chongqing or Guangdong. “It seems like it’s bustling again.” But part of the increase in traffic jams might be down to the fact that people are steering clear of public transport, wary of social proximity, and choosing to use their cars instead.

Pollution data is another valuable source of information. Over the past weeks, people on Twitter have been sharing satellite images of various countries, showing that pollution levels are dropping across the industrialised world as a result of coronavirus-induced lockdowns. But where working-from-home twitteratis see a poetic silver lining, Madani sees cold facts about oil consumption. 

For instance, the level of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions, regularly posted on Nasa’s website, is a proxy for pretty much any post-industrial human activity. “NO2 is everything: it’s cars, it’s industry, it is just emissions coming out of everything,” he says. “And it’s changed quite a lot over the past month, with a big drop on the east coast of the USA, where most of the industries are, and a massive uptake in China.” 

“When I look at China, I would say that right now there’s somewhere between two thirds and three fifths up to where they were the same time last year. They’re making a good rebound.”

Gian Volpicelli is WIRED’s politics editor. He tweets from @Gmvolpi

Where You Are Makes You Who You Are

Extract – I am interested in what happens if we treat the intenet, or the web, cyberspace, as a real place. Rob Kitchin and Matin Dodge talk about code/space where digital code is integrated with physical or analogue space. A checkout in a shop for example, is useless without code and connection to the internet. The code/space has an influence on behaviour, ie no connection, no sale. We also behave differently at home, at work, in our shower or in the pub. To some extent where you are makes you who you are. I am an employee, only at work. This links into performance theories and humanistic geography and other areas. This is an interesting article about how being ‘witnessed’ makes us change our behaviour and our perceptions. Thus CCTV could change public behaviour.


Janina Steinmetz February 27, 2020 1.48pm GMT

Facial recognition is increasingly being used in many countries around the world. In some cases the take up has been dramatic. As a result, people are being observed by cameras more than ever, whether in stores, on public transit, or at their workplaces. 

Using this technology may seem justified when it helps law enforcement track down criminals and make the lives of ordinary citizens safer. But how does the constant observation affect the citizens it is supposed to protect from criminals?

It’s easy to imagine that pervasive camera observation will change people’s behaviour. Often, such changes are for the better. For example, research has shown that when observed, people donate more to charity and wash their hands more frequently to prevent transmitting diseases. Given that these positive outcomes are in everyone’s best interest, it seems that people’s increased observation is positive for society as a whole – as long as privacy regulations are strictly followed.

A magnifying effect

My research, however, points to a consequence of being observed that has so far been neglected in the public debate around increased observation. My co-authors and I found in several experiments that being observed changes not only what people do, but also how they think. Specifically, we found that when people know that they are observed, they see themselves through the eyes of the observer (or through the lens of a camera).

By adopting the perspective of the observer in addition to their own perspective, people perceive themselves as if under a magnifying glass. As a result, people’s observed actions feel magnified. For example, we asked some volunteers to eat a portion of chips in front of a camera, whereas others ate the same food unobserved. The observed volunteers afterwards thought they had eaten larger portions because their behaviour felt to them as if under a magnifying glass.

Such a finding might seem like harmless collateral of increased observation, given its other benefits. However, we also found more troubling thought patterns when people were observed. We asked volunteers to take a test, in which they inevitably gave some wrong answers. Those volunteers who were observed during the test thought they had given more wrong answers than unobserved volunteers, although in reality there was no difference between the groups of volunteers.

So for the observed volunteers, their errors loomed larger in their minds. The same happened when we surveyed badminton players after team tournaments. Those players whose teams lost, thought they were personally responsible for the loss to a larger extent when more spectators had observed them play. Again, any errors in their play loomed larger when a player had felt observed when playing for their unsuccessful team. In other words, being observed changed how people thought about their behaviour.

We do not know yet what this magnifying glass effect means for people’s thoughts and feelings in the long run. Feeling that one’s errors and failures loom large might hurt one’s confidence and self-esteem. Similarly, small digressions might seem more serious under constant observation. Someone who enjoys leaving the house in their pyjamas to wolf down some junk food might think back with shame and disgust when observed during such forgivable behaviour.

As camera observation becomes more and more prevalent, citizens who are concerned with privacy are assured that most camera recordings are never watched, or are erased after a short while. Yet, we are only beginning to understand some of the psychological consequences of increased observation. These effects on people’s thought and feelings might linger, even long after the camera tape has been erased.

The Internet As Place

Heinrich Holtgreve

January 9, 2016

In the summer of 2012, Heinrich Holtgreve happened upon a blog post — BLDG BLOG — in which its author, Andrew Blum, outlines the potential dangers of the centralization of information. It was this discovery that sparked Holtgreve’s fascination with the physicality of the internet. The internet is a place one can visit: Buildings of varying importance that are related to its facilitation and management are scattered all over the world, and are situated contrary to typical notions of a connected world. The internet connects cities, countries and continents via fiber-optic cables that follow the shortest path between two points. Egypt is a significant location for international data traffic and the cables carrying data follow the same path that international trade lines do, passing through the Suez Canal. Downtown Cairo hosts the largest internet exchange — the Cairo Internet Exchange or CAIX — and cable systems like SEA-ME-WE-3 and 4 or FLAG are routed ashore in Alexandria. Egypt’s geographical location has benefitted the state in a number of ways. Just as the Suez Canal has annually brought in billions of dollars, there is money to be made from selling licenses to cable laying companies, and the Egyptian government is well aware of this. Yet, while he is fascinated by the tangibility of the internet, Holtgreve is also aware that it’s “not all sparks & romance,” and that Egyptians don’t enjoy many of the same freedoms as others with the same infrastructure. For example, the internet was shut down nationwide from the CAIX directly on January 28, 2011, in an unprecedented move by the Egyptian government. It might not sound advantageous that the informational infrastructure for most countries is in the hands of private companies with their thirst for profit, but it’s frightening that governments also maintain such a tight grip on networks, broadcasting the voices of some and silencing others. Indeed, in its brief history, the architecture of the internet has managed to withstand a number of threats. Despite these pertinent issues, Holtgreve hopes to show that Egypt is in a critical location for international data flow, and that Egyptians can proudly say that the magic of the internet, both tangible and intangible, flows from a handful of buildings in Cairo and Alexandria.

Ordinary Wi-Fi routers in living rooms in Cairo.

An area for praying amongst old server racks at a warehouse run by Alcatel-Lucent on the outskirts of Cairo.

A map of all international submarine cable systems that physically connect the world is seen on a wall at the Cairo offices of submarine cable operator MENA SCS.

The point of the Egyptian coast at Alexandria where four international submarine cables enter Africa.

An apartment block in downtown Cairo.

A mobile phone antenna disguised as a palm tree in Cairo.

Rows of chairs near the Great Sphinx of Giza.

A fishmongers stall at a supermarket in the Cairo district of Zamalek.

T-shirts featuring a popular meme for sale at a stand in Tahrir Square, Cairo.

Exposed lights on an empty billboard in Cairo.

A residential window in the Cairo district of Zamalek.

The headquarters of Telecom Egypt in Smart Village, a suburb on the outskirts of Cairo.

A Point of Precense in downtown Cairo.

A large image of a data center near an ECC Data Center facility in Cairo.

A television broadcaster sets up a temporary internet connection to broadcast live from Tahrir Square, Cairo.

A cross section of a fiber-optic cable, photographed office of cable operator MENA SCS in Cairo.

Part of a building complex that acts both as a “Point of Presence” (an access point to the internet) in Alexandria and as a cable landing station for international submarine cables.

The Cairo Internet Exchange (CAIX) building, the most important internet hub for Egypt and the whole North Africa region.

Left: Computer parts for sale in Cairo. Right: Lights that illuminate the Pyramids of Giza.

A box of wires that connects an area of Giza.

Some creative ways of confusing AI facial recognition.

See original article here

shieldmaiden19:
“ fuzzymiraclebanana:
“ moonlace:
“ prof-vermouthea:
“ missreaddevil:
“ gridbugged:
“Source (x) (x)
”
I want one.
”
thought that said angels, which is objectively cooler
”
This post went from cyberpunk dystopia to fantasy revolution...
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I wish we didn’t have to live in any dystopian future but I would rather us slowly grow into a cyberpunk one rather than the shitty one we currently have…

Do you realize how important this is though?! Like, the society-wide social upheaval happening in Sudan, Hong Kong, Lebanon, and Iraq will happen in the US. Not ‘might’ – WILL. And all of us will have to make a choice between sitting out or risking our lives against our government. These designers are giving current and future protestors the protections necessary to fight for their rights without governments annihilating their families and their lives and that’s amazing.

(Source: radical-eve, via smut-loving-bookworm)

What has Sat-Nav done to our brains?

Interesting programme suggests that our sense of identity and our memories are linked to a sense of place and connect the capacity to tell stories about ourselves at a physiological level through the hippocampus. If we learn to know where we are in space by using a map (as opposed to sat-nav) we have develop better of agency. We know where we are in life. The hippocampus is kept healthy by novelty and shrinks when we let our life become routine, or get too much screen time. Experiential learning (ie making mistakes and learning from them..) slows down alzheimers. Exploring and getting lost, keeps us healthy.

Chris Reed

Listen live

From the BBC Radio 4

Who uses paper maps to get around anymore? Smart phone apps have taken a lot of the stress out of navigation. But at what cost?

In a trip across London, Timandra Harkness teams ups with London cabby Robert Lorden to scrutinise a technology that we now take for granted. How is sat nav changing our brains? Does it affect the way we think?

London taxi drivers are excellent navigators, having to memorise thousands of street names and mentally visualise hundreds of journeys. This impressive cognitive map is evident on an MRI scan – an enlarged part of the brain called the hippocampus.

But for the rest of us, Timandra discovers, scientists are finding that an underactive hippocampus could have wider implications for our health and well-being – particularly in child development, mental health and dementia.

While taking turn-by-turn instructions from a GPS device, we could be losing a vital sixth sense that we do not, as yet, fully understand.

Contributors include Prof Hugo Spiers, director of the Spatial Cognition Laboratory at University College London; Maura O’Connor, author of Wayfinding: The Science and Mystery of How Humans Navigate the World; Prof Veronique Bohbot, cognitive neuroscientist at McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Producer: Dom Byrne
A Greenpoint production for BBC Radio 4

The Analogue Human

The offline and online worlds are also analogue and digital worlds. We live in both. Analogue is the thing. Digital is the code to make the thing.

BBC Radio 4 show The Digital Human made entirely with analogue technology. Yes they really did cut up the tape and splice it.

Monday June 10th.

“To celebrate the 100th episode of The Digital Human Aleks Krotoski explores how digital and analogue technologies make us think differently.”

Read More…

James Bridle – New Dark Age

James Bridle is an artist and writer working across technologies and disciplines. His artworks have been commissioned by galleries and institutions and exhibited worldwide and on the internet. His writing on literature, culture and networks has appeared in magazines and newspapers including Wired, the Atlantic, the New Statesman, the Guardian, and the Observer. “New Dark Age”, his book about technology, knowledge, and the end of the future, was published by Verso (UK & US) in 2018, and he wrote and presented “New Ways of Seeing” for BBC Radio 4 in 2019. His work can be found at http://jamesbridle.com.